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How to choose spring wire

    1 Select steel wire according to purpose

    When ordering steel wire, select the appropriate steel wire standard from Table 1 according to the application.

    The mechanical spring is recommended to adopt the ISO 8458-2 standard (lead-hardened steel wire). The lead-quenched steel wire has a very fine pearlite structure and good fatigue properties.

    Non-mechanical springs can use raw drawn steel wire (no lead quenching treatment before drawing). It is recommended to use YB/T 5220-93 or JIS G3521 standards. It can be used for furniture,

    Car seat cushions, interior decoration, static load springs with low stress, can also be used to reinforce plastic pipes, screens and tools.

    Choosing raw drawn steel wire as mechanical spring may cause problems such as insufficient fatigue life.

    Table 1 Comparison of spring types and spring steel wire standards

    Spring type

    International standard

    Chinese standard

    Japan JIS

    American ASTM

    Give an example

    Non-mechanical spring

    YB/T 5220-93



    Mattress spring, door spring

    Static load mechanical spring

    ISO 8458-2:2002


    GB 4357-89




    General mechanical compression spring, tension spring

    Dynamic load mechanical spring

    ISO 8458-2:2002


    GB/T 4358-1995




    Valve spring

    It is not recommended to adopt the GB 4357-89 standard. This standard does not put forward different requirements for the dynamic load and static load.

    There is no requirement for quenching, and the requirement of phosphorus and sulfur content is also inconsistent with domestic and foreign wire rod specifications.

    Grade: According to the purpose of Table 2, the appropriate steel wire grade can be selected.

    Table 2 Correspondence between standards, grades and uses


    Wire grade

    Classification corresponding to wire use

    ISO 8458-2: 2002

    EN 10270-1: 2001

    SL (1.00-10.00mm) low strength

    SM (0.30-13.00mm) medium strength

    SH (0.30-20.00mm) high strength

    DM (0.30-20.00mm) medium strength

    DH (0.05-20.00mm) high strength

    Static load spring

    Springs with medium to high stress static load or very little dynamic load

    Springs with high stress static load or light dynamic load

    Dynamically loaded springs with medium to high stress; and severely bent parts

    High-stress static load or medium-level dynamic load spring

    JIS G 3521-91

    SW-A (0.08-10.0mm)

    SW-B (0.08-13.0mm)

    SW-C (0.08-13.0mm)

    Low-stress static load springs and other steel wire parts

    Mainly static load springs, screens

    Mainly static load spring

    JIS G 3522-91

    (GB/T 4358-1995 is equivalent to this)




    Dynamic load spring

    Dynamic load spring

    Valve spring

    YB/T 5220-93

    A1-A3 group (1.60-7.00mm) lower stress

    A4-A6 group (0.30-4.00mm) general stress

    A7-A9 group (0.20-1.00mm) higher stress

    Non-mechanical springs for furniture, car seat cushions, interior decoration, etc.

    GB 4357-89

    (Not recommended)

    Group B (0.08-13.00mm)

    Group C (0.08-13.00mm)

    Group D (0.08-6.00mm)

    Low stress static load spring

    Medium stress static load spring

    High stress static load spring

    2 matters needing attention

    Pay attention to the following points when ordering spring steel wire:

    1) It is clear whether to use raw drawn steel wire or lead quenched steel wire;

    2) Propose requirements for steel wire diameter, strength level (group) and standard number (selected according to Table 1.1);

    3) If there are special requirements for strength, diameter tolerance, etc., it should be put forward (standard parameters are in Part 2 and Part 3);

    4) Special packaging and marking requirements (see 1.4);

    5) Carbon steel springs are suitable for working under the maximum long-term temperature of 121℃, and alloy spring steel should be used for working temperature.

    3 Special needs

    Special-shaped section: square, rectangular, hexagonal, etc.

    Annealing treatment: suitable for large deformation plastic processing, such as flattening, rolling into triangles, etc.

    Stabilization treatment: The steel wire will spring straight after being released, and the residual stress will be better eliminated.

    Surface state: The standard state is cold drawn state after phosphating, and other special states include galvanizing, nickel plating and non-phosphating.

    Qin Steel Wire: According to ISO standard DM, DH grade, or according to JIS G 3522 standard delivery.

    Alloy spring steel wire: This information only includes carbon steel, alloy steel wire can be supplied in annealed and cold drawn state.

    Whether special needs can be met should be confirmed when ordering.

    4 Packaging and labeling


    The steel wire is delivered in coil packaging, and special packaging (wooden box, iron drum, pallet, wire rack) can be negotiated.

    All spring steel wires are coated with anti-rust oil. If no oil is required, please state when ordering. The coiled steel wire is bound with plastic woven cloth or other materials.


    Each piece of steel wire is marked with the following content:


    -Company name, trademark, address

    -Diameter, grade (group, strength grade) and standard number

    -Oven number

    -Volume number

    -Roll weight etc.

    Special signs need to be negotiated separately.